Key term Definition
Biophysical and institutional mapping Europe’s biophysical forest ecosystem services are well understood on a general level. InnoForESt refines the knowledge base by providing fine-grained maps of the supply of selected, relevant forest ecosystem services in Europe. The institutional mapping component adds knowledge about future societal demand for forest ecosystem services based on public policy. These mapping processes are not a stand-alone effort. They also provide relevant background knowledge for the Innovation Teams to understand and manage their innovation in their specific local context (WP4 and WP5).
Business model “Representation of a firm’s underlying core logic and strategic choices for creating and capturing value within a value network” (Shafer, Smith, & Linder 2005: 202)
Key components: the sample of strategic choices, the creation of value, the network, and the value preservation
Constructive Innovation Assessment (CINA) Constructive Innovation Assessment (CINA) is the method for innovation assessment in InnoForESt, inspired by Constructive Technology Assessment (Schot & Rip 1997). It consists of a series of workshop activities, including preparation and evaluation/reflection/learning materials, for multi-stakeholder constructive visioning and assessment of the six governance Innovation Regions in focus.
Digital innovation platform Digital innovation platforms are virtual spaces for knowledge exchange. As part of the InnoForESt webpage (, each Innovation Region will be provided with a space, which has an open public part presenting the innovation in the respective local language and in English; and a protected space which the innovation teams can use for sharing information with their local network. The digital platform, like a physical one, should serve the stakeholders communication and exchange, and are co-designed with innovation teams.
Ecosystem service governance innovations The six initial governance innovations in InnoForESt are different Payment schemes for forest Ecosystem Services (PES) and new partnerships/network approaches/ actor alliances. Payment schemes are in focus in Germany, Czech Republic, Finland, and Italy; network/partnership approaches characterise the innovations in Austria, Slovakia, and Sweden.
Ecosystem service governance Navigator The Ecosystem service governance Navigator has the function for the project to provide an integrated view on the core approach chosen to stimulate and observe innovations of forest ecosystem governance. In this interim’s version, we take stock of what has been developed during first year of the project. It collects, interprets and explains, as well as translates useful strategies for forest ecosystem services governance innovations into more practical terms.
Fact sheet These overviews provide easily accessible information about the diverse set of methods used in InnoForESt. By detailing the processes and suitability of the methods in different phases of an innovation process, the fact sheets present innovators in other innovation contexts with a toolbox to enrich the understanding of their Innovation Region and help them push their innovation.
Factor reconfiguration Factor reconfiguration means hypothetical or real experimenting with changes in (key) factors when seeking a different design that can potentially work on larger scale or in a different context.
Factors Factors are “observed conditions or processes that influence the innovation and its development process.” (InnoForESt Deliverable D3.1, p. 3)
FES Forest Ecosystem Services
Forest Ecosystem
Service categories
1. Provisioning: Includes all material outputs from forest ecosystems, such as wood, mushrooms, berries or game. These are tangible things that can be exchanged or traded, as well as consumed or used directly or processed, e.g., for construction, energy or food.
2. Regulating: Includes all the ways in which ecosystems regulate ecosystem characteristics, functions or processes, such as drought resistance, carbon sequestration or water cycles. People benefit from these services directly and indirectly.
3. Cultural: Includes all non-material ecosystem outputs that have symbolic, cultural or intellectual meaning or value (including, e.g., recreation).
Governance Situation Assessment (GSA) The governance situation assessment in InnoForESt serves two purposes. Knowing about governance arrangements, histories, structures and processes not only provides an overview of the socio-political context in which an innovation is taking place or is planned, but also lays the groundwork for the development of scenarios that can be used in strategic workshops for the purpose of Constructive Innovation Assessment.
Idealised innovation process The idealised innovation process depicts what should happen in Innovation Regions in order to best analyse, develop, and foster governance innovations for forest ecosystem service provision. The process consists of three interlinked elements: innovation platforms, networking activities, and workshops.
Innovation Partner (IP) Refers to the practice partners in Innovation Regions.
Innovation Region (IR) Refers to the six initial governance Innovation Regions in InnoForESt (formerly ‘Case Study Regions’).
Innovation Team (IT) Innovation teams (ITs; formerly ‘Case Study Teams’) consist of the science partner and the practice partner who are cooperating in the Innovation Regions.
Matching framework The matching framework offers methods to assist in innovation/prototype development and assessment, which includes the assessment of their transferability to other places (matching).
Matching tool The matching tool helps to identify contexts in which certain prototypes have potential to be fed into another context. The methods used for matching could be something very simple like an Excel table or much more complex (e.g., Stakeholder Analysis, Governance Situation Assessment, QCA, SNA, Net-map, etc.).
The idea – in this project – is to develop a European matching tool to identify places with potential for innovations, e.g., as web-based devise, potentially to be integrated into the Oppla website.
Practice partners
Science partners
Together, as multi‐actor teams, practice and science partners facilitate the innovation processes in the six Innovation Regions, starting as regional innovation network approaches that become scaled up (and interconnected) to national and to EU‐wide networks on good innovation practices for exchange and learning.
Practice partners provide or establish the innovation network and stimulate the forest ecosystem services governance innovation idea. All scientific work and effort is supposed to contribute to the practice partners’ objectives. Practice partners include public policy agencies, private forest owners and enterprises, industry partners, environmental NGOs, as well as tourism and hunting associations.
Science partners are research institutes from – or linked to – the six Innovation Regions collaborating with the practice partner to analyse and support the innovations scientifically.
Prototype A prototype refers to a vision (a scenario, scenario narrative, and model) that describes the future development of the governance innovation in focus. Future development directions are agreed upon by the innovation teams and stakeholders of the governance innovation in terms of its upgrading and upscaling potentials. A prototype is based on the reconfiguration of factors that improve the initial innovation. Prototypes of innovations are different from the initial innovation as they are a future vision, that allows for an abstraction of conditions (i.e., decontextualized from the initial innovation context).
Role Board Games (RBG) A Role Board Game is used for testing the innovation factors as well as testing and making visible behavioural changes of stakeholders in different settings. It also facilitates the stakeholders (or partners) to learn from each other during the game and to develop a mutual understanding. This is expected to foster innovations and problem solution strategies and sustainability-oriented behaviour, from individual towards collective level which, ideally, enables more sustainable behaviour of all stakeholders involved.
Scenario A scenario, as InnoForESt understands it, is at the same time a ‘useful fiction’ and a ‘holding device’. A ‘useful fiction’ is a coherent story or plot of a world, in which the innovation has taken on a specific shape. A ‘holding device’ is a condensation of what is known about one specific possible development. In other words, a scenario is a thoughtful, systematic, rich mixture of creativity based on prior knowledge of the governance situation. See section 5.1 for more detail.
Socio-ecological technical forestry innovation systems (SETFIS) This is the analysis framework for the governance of policy and business innovation types and conditions. It serves as an analytical lens to support the exploration of influencing factors on governance innovations to secure a sustainable provision of forest ecosystem services. The creation of the analysis framework builds on the idea of complex processes within linked social-ecological-technical-forestry-innovation systems (SETFIS) of the InnoForESt Innovation Regions.
Stakeholder Analysis (SA) InnoForESt has carried out a stakeholder analysis for each Innovation Region. Such a mapping exercise is meant to find out about a broad range of stakeholder categories. It is necessary to have a broad, exploratory range as characteristics that are (potentially) important when shaping or fostering the governance innovation processes will differ across innovation contexts.
Strategic workshop Constructive Innovation Assessment (see elsewhere in this glossary) is carried out in strategic workshops. As opposed to regular work floor interactions, these strategic workshops are characterised by a careful preparation including the (further) development of scenarios representing possible innovation prototypes.
Support products InnoForESt produces a range of tailor-made support products that assist workshop activities and networks. These products are available at different points in time and relate to different innovation activities. Science partners in Innovation Teams function as translators for scientific support requests. Products are listed in the Appendix presenting “The idealised innovation process” and will be available on the digital innovation platform.
Training InnoForESt’s approach will be translated into a training manual for practitioners. The training materials are based on internal training sessions as well as other products and deliverables of the project. This contributes to InnoForESt’s sustainability and enables the transfer of the approach to other innovation contexts.
Typology of Forest Ecosystem Services Governance Innovation Situation The assessment of the governance situations in the Innovation Regions delivered a preliminary typology of governance innovation situations (see elsewhere in this glossary). Eleven categories were distinguished to meaningfully compare governance situations across such different innovation contexts. Based on the innovation analytical approach taken in InnoForESt, these categories cover different levels of the socio-technical system that is the innovation, e.g. regime, niche, and landscape developments. In addition, it maps the core issues in the innovation context and assesses their structuredness (see Fact sheet on Governance Situation Assessment for more details).
Typology of Forest Ecosystem Services stakeholders Based on a thorough stakeholder analysis in InnoForESt’s Innovation Regions, patterns of stakeholders as well as “odd men out” were distinguished. The typology differentiates between stakeholders’ (a) sphere, (b) business type, (c) scale, and a qualitative assessment of their (d) openness to innovation.
Work floor/
work meetings
As opposed to strategic workshops, work floor or work meetings are all interactions between the Innovation Team and stakeholders that are not linked immediately to the discussion of scenarios. Think of simple phone calls to catch up with certain stakeholders, discussions in preparation of workshops or bringing stakeholders in contact with each other.