Explanation & Legend Definition

European forests cover nearly 40 % of the surface and are home of most of the continent’s biodiversity. In addition to the supply of timber, to which most forested European land is dedicated, forests provide a multitude of other benefits and services in terms of climate regulation, human health, recreation, fresh water supply and many others.

Governance Schemes

Network approaches and new actor alliances:
describes a system based on cooperation where individuals (e.g. persons, households or organisations) formulate individual and common goals.

Payment schemes and compensation:
can be designed as a system of voluntary exchange (real market). The allocation of resources and provision of services is determined by the largest willingness to pay.

is a system of command. Power of decision rests with a top level. Governments, firms, and dynasties are all examples of hierarchical structures.

However, few real-world governance systems are actually based on just one type. Typically, they co-exist, as they may even depend fundamentally on each other.

Innovation Stage

Selected innovations across Europe, which are in different stages of development.

Case Study
Bio­geo­graph­ical Region
Eco­system Services
Initial Pioneer Inno­vations
Inno­vation Stage
Central, continental
Tourism and Recreation, biodiversity, timber
Network approaches
Articulation/ consolidating
Central, East
CO2 Sequestration
Payment schemes
Articulation/ Consolidating
Boreal, North-East
Biodiversity, Timber, CO2 Sequestration
Payment schemes
Consolidating/ implementation
Timber, non-timber products, carbon
Payment schemes
Mediterranean, South
Water regulation, natural hazards protection, tourism and recreation
Payment schemes
Boreal, North
Tourism, recreation and spiritual values

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